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A. Child Counselling Issues

A healthy child is one who is strong physically as well as mentally. In many adults with mental disorder, the problem can be traced back to their childhood. Unfortunately, the symptoms went unnoticed back then and they were unable to receive proper treatment. The earlier the treatment begins, the better it is for the child. This can help in preventing the problem from becoming more severe or have a lasting impact on the child ’s life.

School refusal
‘School refusal’ is when a child is not willing to attend school on a regular basis or finds it hard to stay there. Children with this issue may begin to complain of experiencing physical symptoms before its time to leave for school in the morning. In case they are allowed to take the day off, the symptoms quickly go away only to reappear the next morning. At school, these children often complain of not feeling well and request to be sent to the infirmary. It has also been seen in some cases that the child may not be willing to leave the house. The physical symptoms which the children generally complain of include stomach aches, diarrhoea, headaches and nausea. They may also exhibit separation anxiety, tantrums, inflexibility and defiance.

Parent’s separation
A child who experiences parental separation feels a strong sense of loss and can become fearful about being left along. The child may also worry that the separation is somehow his/her fault. The feelings of anger, guilt, rejection and insecurity can take a toll on his/her mental health.

Bullying
Children are more susceptible to being bullied as compared to adults. Kids who aren't very popular among their peers and have fewer friends are often bullied by their more popular counterparts. A child who is a victim of bullying may begin to avoid social situations, have trouble sleeping, lose interest in spending time with friends, have a low self-esteem, become irritable, stop eating properly, lose interest in studies and may come home with unexplained injuries.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
ADHD affects children and teenagers. There is also a possibility that it may continue into adulthood. It is among the most commonly diagnosed disorder among children and tends to be more common in boys. Those who suffer from this disorder display symptoms like hyperactivity, inability to control impulses and trouble in paying attention. Such behaviours may hamper life at school as well as home. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is often diagnosed early in school life, when a child seems to find it difficult to pay attention.

Conduct Disorder
The term refers to a couple of persistent and repetitive behavioural and emotional issues in youngsters. Children who have conduct disorder may find it hard to show empathy, follow rules, or behave in a socially acceptable manner. People often tag children with this disorder as ‘ill-mannered’ or ‘delinquent.’

Difficulty in studies
People with learning disabilities or difficulties find it very hard to learn things in a normal manner. This happens because their brain is unable to receive and process the information like it does in people without learning disabilities. Those who suffer from such issues often experience trouble displaying certain skills, find it hard to perform certain tasks, lack adequate social skills etc. Children with learning difficulties have a really hard time at school.

Extreme Shyness
A shy child may find it difficult or overwhelming to adjust in unfamiliar situations or interact with other people. Such children may become nervous or feel constrained if they realise that they are the centre of attention. As a result, they do not feel comfortable when asked to speak in front of others or on being introduced to someone new. Most children tend to feel shy at some point or the other and usually grow out of it as they turn older. Parents can help the child overcome mild shyness. However, the situation seems to be quite difficult in some cases. There is a possibility that children who suffer from extreme shyness may grow up to become shy adults.

Addiction to Gadgets
Gadgets like smartphones may help a child calm down and stay busy, but they may also end up being addictive. Parents use these devices to keep their child involved so that he or she does not bother them for a while. It has been observed that children with two working-parents often turn to gadgets like phones and T.V. to keep them entertained since their parents may not be able to give them enough time.

Childhood abuse and trauma
This may involve non-accidental trauma or physical injury that can be a result of beating, punching, kicking, biting or harming a child in any other way.

Hostel life stress
Students may have some enduring experiences while they live away from their home and family. Hostel life requires a student to learn how to be independent as well as adjust and compromise while living with his/her peers and roommates. Financial crisis, personal helplessness, adjustment issues, tension and distress, changes in eating and sleeping habits are few of the many difficulties that students living in hostels may have to face.

Self-destructive behaviour
Children who exhibit such behaviour often use it to attain something that is missing from their lives.

B. Adolescent Counselling Issues

Performance anxiety in school
Performance anxiety can hinder a person's ability to do his\her best in a certain task. The negative stress experienced by people with performance anxiety may stop them from functioning as they should and cause psychological suffering.

Drug/alcohol addiction
Substance abuse, especially among teens and young adults, is one of the major concerns of our society. It has been observed that teenagers with drug addiction have increased chances of suffering from various social issues. They may find it hard to relate to their peers and exhibit anti-social behaviour. These children also have more chances of getting into fights and are more likely to steal. The ‘rebellious” attitude of teenagers can sometimes be related to alcohol or drug abuse.

C.Personality Issues

Paranoid personality disorder People with this disorder often find it hard to trust others. They grow suspicious of other people and tend to doubt their motives.

Schizoid personality disorder Many a times, people with schizoid personality disorder may not even realise that they are suffering from it. This disorder includes symptoms like constricted emotional expression range and indifference towards social bonds.

Schizotypal personality disorder People suffering from this disorder may display odd or eccentric behaviour. They have very few close relationships and are often unable to understand the impact of their behaviour on others. Those who have schizotypal personality disorder may often misinterpret the behaviour of others and end up distrusting them. They do not respond well to social cues and may have certain beliefs which others may find strange. Such people may experience severe anxiety and not do well in social situations.

Histrionic Personality Disorder It is marked by emotional overreaction, constant attention seeking, over-dramatization of situations etc. The unintentional actions of a person suffering from this disorder may lead to impaired relationships and even depression.

Borderline Personality Disorder This disorder is characterized by a continuous pattern of varying moods, self-image as well as behaviour. People who suffer from BPD experience episodes of depression, anxiety or anger. These episodes may last from just a few hours to several days. The symptoms often cause the person to react impulsively and hamper relationships.

Obsessive compulsive personality disorder This disorder often involves a preoccupation with perfectionism, orderliness, interpersonal control, mental control etc. People with OCD usually fail to incorporate qualities like flexibility and openness in their behaviour.

Anxious avoidant personality disorder Those who suffer from anxious avoidant personality disorder have long-standing feelings of inadequacy. They are very sensitive to other people's opinions about them. Since a person with this disorder feels inadequate, he or she may act in an inhibited manner and lack social skills. He\she may also avoid school, work or any other situation that requires interacting and socializing.

Dependent personality disorder People who suffer from DPD appear to be needy and passive and display clinging behaviour. They can also be indecisive and require constant reassurance and advice even in mundane matters. Those with DPD often have a fear of separation.

D. DAY TO DAY CONCERNS

Communication skills Communication can be described as the act of transferring information from point A to point B. This can be done verbally, non verbally, visually, etc. The efficiency of our communication skills depends upon how well the information is transmitted and received. Effective communication skills are among the most essential life skills a person should posses.

Decision making Skills Every person requires the ability to make logical decisions on the basis of available information. There are no set rules that one can follow while making decisions. Each situation comes with its own challenges and different people have different approach towards resolving these problems. A systematic approach can help you confidently make efficient decisions.

Procrastination We often find ourselves procrastinating, i.e. putting off a certain task until it's the eleventh hour. It is a very common habit. Researcher and speaker Pier Steel is of the view that as many as 95 per cent of people procrastinate to some degree. This habit can hold you back from giving your best and performing well.

Assertive skills Assertive communication refers to the ability to put forth positive and negative feelings or ideas in an honest and open manner. It involves exercising our rights as well as respecting the rights of other people. It also gives people a chance to take responsibility for themselves as well as their actions without playing the blame game. In case a conflict occurs, assertive communication enables them to confront constructively and come to a solution mutually.

Time management skills on a regular basis. It may require a little time investment beforehand for organizing yourself and setting your priorities. However, once that has been taken care of, you will be able to practice proper time management every day, with a few tweaks and adjustments here and there.

Performance anxiety and Public Speaking Efficient public speaking skills may come handy in several situations in life. It can help in boosting your confidence, enhancing your reputation and opening doors to new opportunities. Poor public speaking skills, however, can affect a person in the exact opposite way. You may miss out on opportunities or be unable to excel at your job. Performance anxiety can hamper your self-confidence and end up causing a lot of trouble.

Low motivations Lack of motivation is extremely common. Many a times, low motivation is a result of subconscious mental strategies. A number of these strategies may have been intended to inspire and motivate you. They can be something that you picked-up long time ago, when you had little understanding of the world around you. For example, your parents may have tried to urge you to do better through criticism or yelling. Now, this is exactly what you do to yourself in your own mind. Although, ineffective, a person continues to practice these strategies because that's all he or she may know. Learning new self-motivation method can help you let go of old, useless habits.

Stress Management Stress management refers to an array of psychotherapies and techniques that target at controlling the stress levels in a person. This is especially suitable for chronic stress and is required for improving the everyday life and functioning. Excessive stress can lead to a number of negative consequences, including physical ailments.

E. IMPULSE CONTROL DISORDERS

Impulsive Spending This involves buying goods and services without planning the purchase beforehand. In several cases, where a person indulges in impulsive spending, it is triggered by feelings and emotions.

Risky sexual behaviour Those who display this behaviour are at an increased risk of contracting STDs or having unwanted pregnancies. Risky sexual behaviour is characterized by having several partners, becoming sexually active at an early age, having unprotected sex, having sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol etc.

Combative and assaultive behaviours The increasing violence in our society is a major concern. This pattern can also be seen in health-care settings. Assaultive episodes in health-care settings are on the rise owing to several sociological, cultural and political factors. Unfortunately, current administrative and educational solutions have failed to tackle the problem. Psychiatric staff can be of help in the reduction of assault incidences by spotting the risk factors and coming up with interventions and treatment styles while considering these factors. Assault history, intoxication, diagnosed disorder are few common risk factors associated with assault.

Substance Abuse It involves usage of drugs that are not legal as well as excessive intake of prescription medicines, alcohol and other legal substances. It must be kept in mind that substance abuse is not the same as addiction. While substance abuse is a problem that is comparatively easier to overcome, addiction is a disease.

Recklessness and excessive risk-taking When a person acts recklessly, it means that he\she has a fair idea that a certain act or behaviour will most likely cause him\her harm or injury. The level of liability for reckless behaviour can be greater than negligence but more than intentional conduction.

Recklessness is the basis of several types of claims for personal injuries.

Binge eating and Gambling Researchers are now looking for possible connection between pathological gambling and binge eating disorder. This is because the two disorders have various similar qualities. In case such a relationship really exists and the researchers are able to find it, the world will have a better insight into the neurological mechanism of a number of disorders.